J. Robert Dean
Mr. Dean was appointed to the Board of Directors on January 5, 2005. His current term expires on December 30, 2020. Please send email correspondence to firstname.lastname@example.org or call the Executive Office at 305.295.2205.
Richard J. Toppino
Mr. Toppino was appointed to the Board of Directors on December 4, 2015. His current term expires December 30, 2018. Please send email correspondence to email@example.com or call the Executive Office at 305.295.2205.
David C. Ritz
Mr. Ritz was first appointed to the Board of Directors on January 5, 2005. His current term expires December 30, 2020. Please email correspondence to firstname.lastname@example.org or call the Executive Office at 305.295.2205.
Antoinette M. Appell
Ms. Higgins was appointed to the Board of Directors on February 17, 2015. Her current term expires December 30, 2018. Please send email correspondence to email@example.com or call the Executive Office at 305.295.2205.
Kirk C. Zuelch
Mr. Zuelch has been employed with FKAA since August 1, 2003. He served as General Counsel until his appointment as Executive Director in 2011. Please email correspondence to firstname.lastname@example.org or call the Executive Office at 305.295.2205.
Kerry G. Shelby, CPA
Kent Nelson, P.E.
Robert T. Feldman
Timothy S. Esquinaldo, CFSA, CRMA
Karen M. Rodriguez
Thomas L. Morgan
Please view current opportunities below and submit the interactive employment application. If you have any questions please contact Pam Albury in Human Resources at (305) 295-2213 or e-mail us at: email@example.com.
|JobID||Posting Date||Job Title||Comments||Deadline||Apply|
If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. We are responsible for providing high-quality drinking water but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. If you’re concerned about the potential of lead in your drinking water, you can take several steps to test for and limit possible exposure.
To request information on balances owed on specific properties by closing agents, banks, realtors, or other processors, the FKAA offers an easy and efficient method to gain such information.
|91620 Overseas Highway||3200 Overseas Highway||1100 Kennedy Drive|
|Tavernier, FL 33070||Marathon, FL 33050||Key West, FL 33040|
|Tel: 305.296.2454||Tel: 305.296.2454||Tel: 305.296.2454|
Complete the attached FKAA Form or use a form standardized by your agency. The request must contain the property owner's name,
address, property ID number, and your agency information.
Once the form is completed:
- Save the request to your desktop
- Attach the request to your email
- Select the FKAA Area Office in which the subject property is located
- Send the email
FKAA will respond within 48 hours.
Optional Request Form
Check back soon for exciting FKAA community events!
There are currently no service interruptions or alerts.
There are currently no ongoing projects in the Upper Keys area.
There are currently no ongoing projects in the Middle Keys area.
There are currently no ongoing projects in the Lower Keys area.
The FKAA delivers approximately 17,000,000 gallons per day of high quality drinking water to the residents of the Florida Keys. The FKAA’s primary water supply, the Biscayne Aquifer, is a superior source water meeting and exceeding all regulatory drinking water standards prior to treatment. To supplement this source the FKAA also utilizes the Floridan Aquifer, a deeper, more brackish aquifer. In emergency situations the FKAA has the capability of utilizes two seawater plants, one in Marathon and one in Stock Island, to supply additional water.
• Where Does Our Water Come From?
The water treatment plant is an integrated source facility staffed by state-licensed personnel. Water produced from the FKAA’s primary supply, the Biscayne Aquifer is treated through a lime softening process. Water obtained from the Floridan Aquifer is treated through a low pressure reverse osmosis treatment system and combined with the treated Biscayne water. A disinfectant and fluoride are added prior to distribution.
• How Is Our Water Purified?
Protecting Our Nearshore Waters
The Florida Keys are comprised of a chain of islands that extend out 130 miles from the southern tip of the Florida Peninsula, culminating in the southern most point of the United States. Home to a variety of environmentally sensitive areas including a National Marine Sanctuary, Four National Wildlife Refuges, the Dry Tortugas National Park and the third largest coral reef in the world, protection of its nearshore waters is essential. In 1984 the Florida Keys, were designated an area of Critical State Concern by the state of Florida in 1984. Protection of these resources has becomes essential from both an environmental and economic standpoint for an area that now supports a permanent population of approximately 80,000 residents that nearly doubles during the winter season.
Wastewater from the existing septic systems, onsite systems and cesspits was found to be introducing nutrients and harmful bacteria into the nearshore waters, significantly harming coral and other marine life. With this in mind, providing central sewer throughout the Keys was mandated by the State of Florida in 1999. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority provides central wastewater services to seven regions of the Keys utilizing advanced technologies to maximize nutrient and pollutant removal from wastewater discharges. In two of these areas the effluent is further disinfected allowing the FKAA to provide valuable reclaimed water to the residents.
Click the map below to explore our Interactive Wastewater Districts page. Learn more about wastewater in your area.
What is Reclaimed Water?
Reclaimed water, sometimes called recycled water, is former wastewater that has been highly treated and disinfected so that it can be safely used for non-potable (non-drinking) uses, such as irrigation, vehicle washing and aesthetic fountains. Reclaimed water is delivered through a completely separate system of piping than potable (drinking) water, and can be easily distinguished by the required purple pipe. Meeting the strictest guidelines set forth by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, reclaimed water is a safe and cost-efficient alternative for conserving our valuable freshwater supply. The following links provide informational brochures detailing our reclaimed water service.
• Big Coppitt Regional Reclaimed Water Brochure
• Duck Key Reclaimed Water Brochure
Where is Reclaimed Water service available?
Big Coppitt Key / Rockland Key / Shark Key (Big Coppitt Regional Wastewater District) -- Currently, reclaimed water service is available on a first come, first served basis within certain sections of the Big Coppitt Regional Waterwater District. The link below provides a map of the Big Coppitt reclaimed water service area.
Duck Key -- Reclaimed water service is available to all of Duck Key. Residents are welcome to review the above Reclaimed Water Brochure and return the reclaimed water service request portion to the FKAA. The link below provides a map of the Duck Key reclaimed water service area.
• Big Coppitt Regional Service Area
• Duck Key Service Area
More About Reclaimed Water
The following links will help you better understand reclaimed water and how to connect to the Reclaimed System.
• How Can I Use Reclaimed Water?
• How Do I Connect To The Reclaimed System?
• Additional Reclaimed Water FAQ's
Additional information may be found by navigating to More About Us or by calling 305-296-2454.
The FKAA currently obtains its water from the fresh groundwater Biscayne aquifer in Southwest Dade County. Groundwater is pumped from 60-80 ft deep wells and treated in a lime softening plant located southwest of Florida City. The treated water is then pumped through a 130-mile long transmission main to Key West serving the entire Florida Keys and Key West. The same Biscayne aquifer serves as the principal sole source fresh drinking water supply for all of Dade, Broward and Palm Beach Counties. The skyrocketing population growth and water demand of Southeast Florida has forced the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) to put strict restrictions on the quantity of water that users can continue to withdraw from the Biscayne aquifer. FKAA's well field near Florida City is particularly vulnerable to withdrawal restrictions because of its close proximity to Everglades National Park to the west, and to the saltwater intrusion line to the south and east.
FKAA Alternative Water Supply Initiative Aquifer Storage and Recovery Well
The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is facing significant challenges in meeting the projected water demands for the next twenty years. Functional population projections used to develop water consumption needs from year 2005 through the year 2025 indicate that the daily production rate must be increased by approximately 6 million gallon per day (MGD) from 23.79 MGD to 29.11 MGD. Additionally, this increase in production capacity will also require significant improvements to the water treatment system.
The Biscayne Aquifer, the shallow-current source of fresh water supply, is subjected to strict withdraw regulations by the Water Management District especially during the dry season of the year when the Aquifer receives less recharge from rainfall. Without an increase in the volume of water supplied by this source an alternate water supply must be secured in order to augment the current water treatment capacity of the system.
In south-east Florida, the construction of Aquifer Storage and Recovery wells (ASR) deep enough to reach the Floridian Aquifer have received the endorsement of the Water Management District and the Department of Environmental Protection as one of the alternate and most viable source of abundant water supply. This initiative has been tested and has proven to be a key component of the recovery strategy for the waters of the Everglades National Park.
In support to this Alternate Water Supply Initiative and as part of the strategic plan, FKAA filed the appropriate documentation and received all required regulatory permits needed to construct an ASR well with an estimated depth of 1,350 ft. Construction of the ASR well commenced in January 2006 and is expected to be completed in October of the same year. The well will be located in a protected area within the J. Robert Dean Water Treatment Plant in Florida City. Once constructed, the ASR well will have the potential to supply large volumes of water "Stored" in the Floridian Aquifer during low demand or wet season periods and "Recovered" in the dry season or in periods of high demand.
The volume of water yielded during each "Recovered" cycle will be treated and blended with water extracted from the Biscayne Aquifer thus increasing the output of the water treatment system without exceeding the withdrawal allocation permit of the Biscayne Aquifer.
Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP)
Florida's Everglades was once a vibrant, free-flowing river of grass, extending from the Kissimmee chain of lakes to Florida Bay. Today, the ecosystem is dying. A vast reduction in its natural water flow, combined with loss of 50 percent of its wetlands and other factors related to South Florida's rapid growth, have severely affected the ecosystem. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in partnership with the South Florida Water Management District have developed a plan to save the Everglades. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan describes a series of projects to take place over more than 30 years to restore the ecosystem, largely focusing on improving water deliveries.
Lower East Coast (LEC) Regional Water Supply Plan
The South Florida Water Management District has undertaken development of long-term comprehensive regional water supply plans to provide better management of South Florida's water resources. The FKAA well field is located in the Lower East Coast Region and the plan includes recommended withdrawals from the FKAA well field over a 20-year planning period. Prevention of groundwater withdrawals from Everglades National Park, and continued stabilization of the salt water intrusion line are major factors influencing the LEC Regional Water Supply Plan's recommended withdrawals from FKAA's well field. The SFWMD relies heavily on these recommended withdrawals in the development of Water Use Permits (WUPs) for the FKAA's Biscayne aquifer well field.
For more information please contact the FKAA at (305) 296-2454 or e-mail us at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please do not send financial information such as credit card or banking numbers. Your account information can be managed through our secure Pay My Bill system or by contacting Customer Service at 305-296-2454.
Upper Keys Location
91620 Overseas Highway
Tavernier, FL. 33070
Middle Keys Location
3200 Overseas Highway
Marathon, FL. 33050
Lower Keys Location
Key West Office
1100 Kennedy Drive
Key West, FL 33040
Legionnaires’ disease is a respiratory disease caused by breathing in small water droplets contaminated with Legionella bacteria. The bacteria thrive in biofilms,
which can protect it from disinfectants. However, chloramine, the disinfectant used by the FKAA, has the ability to penetrate these biofilms and has been shown to
be significantly more effective against the bacteria, when compared to chlorine, which does not penetrate the biofilm.
Most identified outbreaks are in buildings with large water systems, such as hotels, long-term care facilities, and hospitals. In these types of buildings, the most likely sources for spreading water droplets contaminated with Legionella include:
The freshwater Biscayne Aquifer is the primary groundwater supply source for the Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority. Our wellfield is located within an environmentally protected pine rockland forest west of Florida City on the mainland. The location of the wellfield near Everglades National Park, along with restrictions enforced by state and local regulatory agencies, contribute to the unusually high quality of the raw water. The FKAA wellfield contains some of the highest quality groundwater in the country, meeting and exceeding all regulatory drinking water standards prior to treatment. Strong laws and regulations protect our wellfield from potential contaminating land uses. The J. Robert Dean Water Treatment Plant is staffed by state licensed personnel and it is home to one of our two nationally certified water testing laboratories.
The water taken from the ground at our well field is classified as very hard due to the relatively high concentration of calcium in the water. We use a process called lime softening to reduce the calcium hardness. Lime softening is achieved by the addition of excess calcium. This allows the water to become supersaturated with calcium, thereby causing the calcium to sink to the bottom of the treatment unit leaving softened water for use by our customers. Softened water does not deposit as much calcium scale on household plumbing fixtures and cooking utensils and allows shampoo, laundry detergent and other soaps to lather better.
The softened water is then piped to "dual media filters": layers of anthracite and fine sand, a copy of the process that Mother Nature uses to filter water. We then add a disinfectant to prevent any bacteria growth the water could pick up on its journey from Florida City to Key West. Chlorine and ammonia are combined in the water to form Chloramines, a long-lasting disinfectant without the objectionable taste and odor of regular chlorine. We then add Fluoride, which is recommended for drinking water by the American Dental Association to prevent cavities and strengthen bones.
Our water is pumped to the Keys through a 130 mile long transmission main at a maximum pressure of 250 pounds per square inch. Our pipe begins with a diameter of 36", narrowing to 24" and ending with an 18" diameter. We use 800 horsepower electric motors at the water plant to pump water south. In case of an emergency or power outage we have two 1,000 horsepower diesel pumps and forty-five thousand gallons of fuel in storage. As an example, the diesel pumps were run for 28 days continuously after Hurricane Andrew. High pressure is required to move the water over long distances. The FKAA has booster pump stations in Key Largo, Long Key, Marathon, Ramrod Key and Stock Island to maintain desired pressures in the water main.
J. Robert Dean Water Treatment Facility (PWS ID#: FL4134357)
The water treatment plant is an integrated source facility staffed by state-licensed personnel. Groundwater extracted from the Biscayne Aquifer is the primary source water for this facility. A secondary groundwater source, the Floridan Aquifer, is utilized to a much lesser extent. The Biscayne source water is classified as very hard due to the high concentration of calcium in the water. A process called lime softening is used to reduce calcium hardness. Lime softening is achieved by the addition of excess calcium under high pH conditions. This allows the water to become supersaturated with calcium, causing the calcium to sink to the bottom of the lime softening treatment unit, leaving less hard (softened) water for use by FKAA. The FKAA finished product water is considered moderately hard. The softened water is then piped to dual media filters, which are made up of layers of anthracite and fine sand, for additional removal of particles (calcium) and further purification. Chlorine and ammonia are injected into the water to form chloramines, which provide long-lasting disinfectant protection without the objectionable taste and odor of regular chlorine. Fluoride, which is recommended for drinking water by the American Dental Association to prevent cavities, is also added. In order to comply with Biscayne Aquifer withdrawal limitations, a Floridan wellfield and low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) water treatment plant were constructed. Operational since the summer of 2009, the LPRO water treatment plant treats the brackish water of the Floridan Aquifer. The Floridan raw water contains approximately 4,000 to 5,000 parts per million (ppm) of salt. This concentration is significantly lower than the 35,000 ppm typically found in seawater, but higher than the 200 ppm found in the Biscayne Aquifer. This LPRO system utilizes very fine membrane elements. The water is pressurized to approximately 250 pounds per square inch (psi), rejecting the salt while allowing the passage of the pure finished water. The LPRO water is disinfected in the same manner as the Biscayne lime-softened water. Finished water from the LPRO WTP is blended with water treated from the Biscayne Aquifer. The FKAA treated water is pumped 130 miles from Florida City to Key West, supplying water to the entire Florida Keys. The water provided to customers in the Florida Keys is continuously monitored and tested to ensure the water quality is consistent, safe, and meets all federal and state drinking water standards. The FKAA operates two
Kermit H. Lewin Reverse Osmosis & Marathon Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facilities (PWS ID#:FL5444047)
Through a process called Reverse Osmosis (RO), the Kermit H. Lewin and Marathon RO water treatment facilities desalinate saltwater, producing potable water. The saltwater from seawater wells first enters the cartridge filter to remove particulate matter. From the filters, the water is pressurized up to 900 psi. These pressures are significantly higher than those required at the Florida City LPRO due to the significantly higher salt content of the seawater. The high pressure forces some of the water in through the RO membranes and is commonly referred to as permeate; the remainder of water is rejected as brine and disposed in an underground injection well. The permeate flows into a degasifier and clear well, where hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are removed. Next, sodium hydroxide is added to raise the pH, and a corrosion inhibitor may be added to provide corrosion control. In the final treatment stage, the permeate is disinfected with chloramines, and the finished product is transferred to the storage tank for distribution.
On April 27, 2015 the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released the final Public Health Services recommendation for the optimal Fluoride level in
drinking water to prevent tooth decay. The new recommendation of 0.7 replaced the previous recommended range of 0.7 to 1.2 milligrams per liter (mg/l). This standard
differs from the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) established maximum contaminant level (MCL). The EPA’s MCL of 4.0 mg/l is set to a level to protect against
either short-term or long-term health risks, while the HHS’s recommendation reflects the optimal level in drinking water to prevent tooth decay.
The change was recommended because Americans now have access to more sources of fluoride, such as toothpaste and mouth rinses, than they did when water fluoridation was first introduced in the United States. The new recommended level will maintain the protective decay prevention benefits of water fluoridation and reduce the occurrence of dental fluorosis.
As shown in the Drinking Water Standards report the FKAA has continually remained within the HHS recommendations and will continue to adhere to their recommendations.
Additional information about Community Water Fluoridation
CDC Community Water Fluoridation Fact Sheet
CDC Community Water Fluoridation Web Page
Your water might be affected by iron, a commonly occurring constituent of drinking water which may also be leached from galvanized piping. Iron tends to add a rusty, reddish brown (or sometimes yellow) color to water, and leaves particles of the same color. If the color is more like black, it could be a combination of iron and manganese. Both of these metals can cause staining of plumbing fixtures or laundry, but they are not known to cause health problems.
The smell of rotten eggs or sewage in the water is likely caused by gases forming in the household drain. These gases are formed by bacteria which live on food, soap,
hair and other organic matter in the drain. These gases are heavier than air and remain in the drain until the water is turned on. As the water runs down the drain,
the gases are expelled into the atmosphere around the sink. It is natural to associate these odors with the water because they are observed only when the water is turned on.
In this case, the odor is not in the water, it is simply the water pushing the gas out of the drain. This can be verified by taking a glass of water from the tap and walking
away to another area to smell the glass of water. If it still smells, please contact our Water Quality Division at 305-295-2146.
If the drain is found to be the source of odors, you can disinfect the drain with bleach.
If the odor is detected only in your hot water supply, it might be an indication that there is an issue with your hot water heater. A sulfurous or rotten egg-like odor in the hot water is caused by bacteria growing in the water heater. This usually happens when the water heater is turned off while on vacation, when the hot water has not been used for a long time or when the temperature setting on the heater is set too low. The bacteria in the water heater are not a health threat; however, they must be eliminated to stop the odor problem. You should consult your owner's manual or contact a licensed plumber.
1. I moved into a new home and I am not sure about the building’s plumbing. Is there a way I can tell if the water quality at my faucet is as high-quality as the water
provided by the FKAA to the meter?
A: Any customer concerned about the water quality at their home can request a Water Quality Analysis. This Customer Water Quality Testing Program is provided by the Aqueduct free of charge. A water quality technician will come to your home and obtain a sample from your faucet. This sample will be tested for Total Chlorine, Hardness, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Iron. The analysis will determine if the sample is outside of the acceptable range and will also allow a comparison between the water provided to the meter by the FKAA and the water at your faucet. If you have any questions about this program, or would like to schedule an appointment, please contact Shelli Johnson, Water Quality and Environmental Manager, at (305) 295-2219 or email@example.com.
2. Why is my water Cloudy and What does it mean to have “air in the line”?
A: The water in the pipes coming into your home or business is under pressure, so gasses (the air) are dissolved and trapped in the pressurized water as it flows into your glass. Occasionally, tiny air bubbles form, causing the water to look cloudy. As the air bubbles rise in the glass, they break free at the surface, thus clearing up the water. Although the milky appearance might be disconcerting, the air bubbles won’t affect the quality or taste of the water. If you see that your water has a cloudy appearance, let the water stand for a few minutes. If the cloudy appearance dissipates, it is simply tiny air bubbles in the water which have now escaped back to the atmosphere. Running the tap for a few minutes should remove the air. If a residue accumulates at the bottom of the glass, there may be sediment in the line. Occasionally, routine cleaning of pipes can stir up the material that has accumulated at the bottom of the pipe. This may also be removed by running the largest faucet for several minutes. If you have sediment in the line and running the tap does not resolve the problem, please contact the FKAA’s Water Quality Division at (305) 295-2146.
3. What makes ice cubes cloudy?
A: As the water freezes, air is trapped in the ice. Light rays are distorted by the crystals and air, giving home-frozen ice a cloudy appearance. This does not occur in most commercially produced ice, as it is stirred as it is being frozen. This mixing reduces the crystallization and trapping of air.
4. What are the Drinking Water Standards?
A: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets standards that, when combined with protecting ground water and surface water, are critical to ensuring safe drinking water. EPA works with its regional offices, states, tribes and its many partners to protect public health through implementing the Safe Drinking Water Act.
Primary Drinking Water Standards:
Primary standards are legally enforceable regulations that protect drinking water quality by limiting the levels of specific contaminants that can adversely affect public health and are known or anticipated to occur in water.
Secondary Drinking Water Standards:
Secondary standards are a guideline regarding contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects or aesthetic effects, but are not known to pose health risks.
For a list of the Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Standards and the FKAA’s most recent results please see the Water Quality link on this page.
5. How Long Can I Store Drinking Water?
A:The disinfectant in drinking water will eventually dissipate even in a closed container. If that container housed bacteria prior to filling up with the tap water the bacteria may continue to grow once the disinfectant has dissipated. Some experts believe that water could be stored up to six months before needing to be replaced. Refrigeration will help slow the bacterial growth.
6. How Often Is My Water Tested?
A:In accordance with state and federal regulations and as part of the FKAA’s Water Quality Program, the FKAA conducts over 95,000 water quality tests every year. Your water is sampled and analyzed by skilled and certified technicians, operators, and laboratories. Your water is analyzed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, at various locations, including at the underground source, at the water treatment plants, and at hundreds of points throughout the distribution system.
7. Is it safe to drink from my garden hose?
A: No. The chemicals in a standard garden hose may leach into the water. It is also important that water left in the hose does not inadvertently, through backpressure or backsiphonage, return into a house fixture such as the kitchen faucet. The installation of an inexpensive hose bib vacuum breaker will protect against backsiphonage. Hose bib vacuum breakers can be purchase at your local hardware or plumbing supply store. The most foolproof way to avoid backflow from the hose is to disconnect the hose from the house when not in use. Food grade plastic hoses are available and often used in recreational vehicles or boats